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Burdock is any of a group of biennial thistles in the genus Arctium, family Asteraceae. Common Burdock (A. minus) grows wild throughout most of North America, Europe and Asia.

Plants of the genus Arctium have dark green leaves that can grow up to 18" (45 cm) long. They are generally large, coarse and ovate, with the lower ones being heart-shaped. They are woolly underneath. The leafstalks are generally hollow. Arctium species generally flower from July through October.

The prickly heads of these Old World plants are noted for easily catching on to fur and clothing, thus providing an excellent mechanism for seed dispersal. Burrs cause local irritation and can possibly cause intestinal hairballs in pets. However, most animals avoid ingesting these plants.

A large number of species have been placed in genus Arctium at one time or another, but most of them are now classified in the related genus Cousinia. The precise limits between Arctium and Cousinia are hard to define; there is an exact correlation between their molecular phylogeny. The burdocks are sometimes confused with the cockleburs (genus Xanthium) and rhubarb (genus Rheum).

The roots of burdock, among other plants, are eaten by the larva of the Ghost Moth (Hepialus humuli). The plant is used as a food plant by other Lepidoptera including Brown-tail, Coleophora paripennella, Coleophora peribenanderi, The Gothic, Lime-speck Pug and Scalloped Hazel.

Ŋàuboŋ-wa 2-nin senplānt keyi für medsin yuseij. Ŋàuboŋ aveilabol in superamarket wa yusolli kùten intu smoler rods. 牛蒡屬是一種二年生的植物,可作日常湯水或藥用。在超級市場販賣的牛蒡,通常都會切短成為多條較短的長條。

牛蒡学名Arctium lappa)是菊科牛蒡属的植物,果实别名恶实大力子。分布于西欧克什米尔地区欧洲俄罗斯北美洲欧亚大陆欧亚大陆广布南美洲寒温带以及中国大陆全国各地普遍分布等地,生長于海拔750米至3,500米的地区,一般生于林缘、林中、灌木叢中、山谷、村庄路旁、山坡、河边潮湿地和荒地。[1]

台灣地區食用牛蒡的風氣主要受到日本影響,原來並沒有野生種,但經由引進種植,在屏東縣的"歸來"人工種植成功,列為當地名產之一。台灣人習慣使用牛蒡細長的根部切塊與排骨燉煮成牛蒡排骨湯,油炒牛蒡絲或是切片後泡茶,稱牛旁茶,或切絲為涼拌菜。相信會有減肥養生等效用。在歐洲中古世紀牛蒡被當成蔬菜使用,現已不再普遍。東歐、北歐還習慣使用其花部,做成洗髮精、潤髮精、保養品點,也有加在茶中入味。

The green, above-ground portions may cause contact dermatitis in humans due to the lactones the plant produces. 由於牛蒡露出地面的部份會分泌出一種内酯,可引起接觸性皮膚炎,所以採摘時要加倍留神。


Uses / Yuses / 用途 Edit

Food and drink Edit

The taproot of young burdock plants can be harvested and eaten as a root vegetable. While generally out of favor in modern European cuisine, it remains popular in Asia, particularly in Japan where A. lappa (Greater burdock) is called gobō (牛蒡 or ゴボウ). Plants are cultivated for their slender roots, which can grow about 1 meter long and 2 cm across. Burdock root is very crisp and has a sweet, mild, and pungent flavor with a little muddy harshness that can be reduced by soaking julienne/shredded roots in water for five to ten minutes. Immature flower stalks may also be harvested in late spring, before flowers appear; the taste resembles that of artichoke, to which the burdock is related. A popular Japanese dish is kinpira gobō, julienned or shredded burdock root and carrot, braised with soy sauce, sugar, mirin and/or sake, and sesame oil; another is burdock makizushi (sushi filled with pickled burdock root rather than fish; the burdock root is often artificially colored orange to resemble a carrot). In the second half of the 20th century, burdock achieved international recognition for its culinary use due to the increasing popularity of the macrobiotic diet, which advocates its consumption. It also contains a fair amount of gobō dietary fiber (GDF, 6g per 100g), calcium, potassium, amino acids,[1] and is also low calorie. It also contains polyphenols that causes darkened surface and muddy harshness by formation of tannin-iron complexes though the harshness shows excellent harmonization with pork in miso soup (tonjiru) and Japanese-style pilaf (takikomi gohan).

Dandelion and burdock is a soft drink that has long been popular in the United Kingdom. Burdock is believed to be a galactagogue, a substance that increases lactation.

Traditional medicine Edit

Folk herbalists consider dried burdock to be a diuretic, diaphoretic, and a blood purifying agent. The seeds of A. lappa are used in traditional Chinese medicine, under the name niupangzi (Template:Zh; Some dictionaries list the Chinese as just 牛蒡 niúbàng.)

Burdock is a traditional medicinal herb that is used for many ailments. Burdock root oil extract, also called Bur oil, is popular in Europe as a scalp treatment applied to improve hair strength, shine and body, help reverse scalp conditions such as dandruff, and combat hair loss. Modern studies[Sōrs rīkwest] indicate that Burdock root oil extract is rich in phytosterols and essential fatty acids (including rare long-chain EFAs), the nutrients required to maintain a healthy scalp and promote natural hair growth. It combines an immediate relieving effect with nutritional support of normal functions of sebaceous glands and hair follicles According to some European herbalists, combining Burdock root oil with a Nettle root oil and massaging these two oils into the scalp every day has a greater effect than Bur oil alone.[Sōrs rīkwest]

Burdock has been used for centuries as a blood purifier clearing the bloodstream of some toxinsTemplate:Which?, and as a diuretic (helping rid the body of excess water by increasing urine output), and as a topical remedy for skin problems such as acne, eczema, rosacea and psoriasis.

Burdock leaves are used by some burn care workers for pain management and to speed healing time in natural burn treatment[2]. Burn care workers hold that it eases dressing changes and appears to impede bacterial growth on the wound site and that it also provides a great moisture barrier.

牛蒡的成熟果實(牛蒡子)是常用的中药。

牛蒡子性味辛苦寒,归肺、胃经。功能疏散风热、透疹、消肿利咽。用于银翘散牛蒡汤透疹汤瓜蒌牛蒡汤普济消毒饮方剂中。[3]

Burdock and Velcro Edit

After taking his dog for a walk one day in the early 1940s, George de Mestral, a Swiss inventor, became curious about the seeds of the burdock plant that had attached themselves to his clothes and to the dog's fur. Under a microscope, he looked closely at the hook-and-loop system that the seeds use to hitchhike on passing animals aiding seed dispersal, and he realised that the same approach could be used to join other things together. The result was Velcro.

Tolstoy Edit

The Russian writer, Leo Tolstoy, wrote in his journal, 1896, about a tiny shoot of burdock he saw in a ploughed field, “black from dust but still alive and red in the center … It makes me want to write. It asserts life to the end, and alone in the midst of the whole field, somehow or other had asserted it.”

Safety Edit

Because the roots of burdock closely resemble those of Deadly nightshade (also known as belladonna or Atropa belladonna), there is a risk that burdock preparations may be contaminated with these potentially dangerous herbs. Be sure to buy products from established companies with good reputations. Do not gather burdock in the wild unless you know what you are doing.


Species / Spīses / 種屬 Edit

References / Riförènses / 參考資料 Edit

  1. 昆明植物研究所. "牛蒡". 《中国高等植物数据库全库》. 中国科学院微生物研究所. http://www.bioinfo.cn/db05/KmzwSpecies.php?action=view&id=2110. Ritrīven on 2009-02-24. 
  2. "Burdock Leaves". An Innovative Burn Treatment. http://morechristlike.com/burdock-leaves/. 
  3. 雷载权、陈松育、高学敏,等.中药学.上海科学技术出版社,1995:41.ISBN 7-5323-3706-5

External link / Ikstörnol liŋk / 外部連結 Edit

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