| Anethum graveolens|
|Dill (Anethum graveolens) is a short-lived perennial herb. It is the sole species of the genus Anethum, though classified by some botanists in a related genus as Peucedanum graveolens (L.) C.B.Clarke.|
It grows to Script error, with slender stems and alternate, finely divided, softly delicate leaves Script error long. The ultimate leaf divisions are Script error broad, slightly broader than the similar leaves of fennel, which are threadlike, less than Script error broad, but harder in texture. The flowers are white to yellow, in small umbels Script error diameter. The seeds are Script error long and Script error thick, and straight to slightly curved with a longitudinally ridged surface.
Origins and historyEdit
Although several twigs of dill were found in the tomb of Amenhotep II, they report that the earliest archeological evidence for its cultivation comes from late Neolithic lake shore settlements in Switzerland. Traces have been found in Roman ruins in Great Britain.
In Semitic languages it is known by the name of Shubit. The Talmud requires that tithes shall be paid on the seeds, leaves, and stem of dill. The Bible states that the Pharisees were in the habit of paying dill as tithe. Jesus rebuked them for tithing dill but omitting justice, mercy and faithfulnessMatthew 23:23[Sōrs rīkwest]
To the Greeks the presence of dill was an indication of prosperity. In the 8th century, Charlemagne used it at banquets to relieve hiccups and in the Middle Ages it was used in a love potion and was believed to keep witches away.
Nomenclature and taxonomy Edit
The name dill comes from Old English dile, thought to have originated from a Norse or Anglo-Saxon word dylle meaning to soothe or lull[Sōrs rīkwest], the plant having the carminative property of relieving gas. In Sanskrit, this herb is termed as Shatapushpa. The seeds of this herb is also termed as Shatakuppi sompa, Shatapushpi, Sabasige, Badda sompu, Sabasiga, Surva, Soyi, Sowa, Soya in Tamil, Hindi, Telugu, Kannanda, Gujarathi, Hindi, Punjabi etc. Template:Expand section
Uses / Yuseij / 用途 Edit
Fresh and dried dill leaves (sometimes called "dill weed" to distinguish it from dill seed) are used as herbs.
Like caraway, its fernlike leaves are aromatic, and are used to flavor many foods, such as gravlax (cured salmon), borscht and other soups, and pickles (where sometimes the dill flower is used). Dill is said to be best when used fresh, as it loses its flavor rapidly if dried; however, freeze-dried dill leaves preserve their flavor relatively well for a few months.
Dill seed is used as a spice, with a flavor somewhat similar to caraway, but also resembling that of fresh or dried dill weed. Dill seeds were traditionally used to soothe the stomach after meals. And, dill oil can be extracted from the leaves, stems and seeds of the plant.
In Lao cuisine and parts of northern Thailand and Vietnam dill is known in English as Laotian coriander and Lao cilantro (Template:Lang-lo, Template:Lang-th, Template:Lang-vi). In the Lao language it is called Phak See and in Thai it is known as Phak Chee Lao. In Lao cuisine, the herb is typically used in mok pa (steamed fish in banana leaf) and several coconut milk-based curries that contain fish or prawns. Lao coriander is also an essential ingredient in Vietnamese dishes like cha ca and canh cá thì là.
Successful cultivation requires warm to hot summers with high sunshine levels; even partial shade will reduce the yield substantially. It also prefers rich, well drained soil. The seeds are viable for 3–10 years. Plants intended for seed for further planting should not be grown near fennel, as the two species can hybridise[Sōrs rīkwest].
The seed is harvested by cutting the flower heads off the stalks when the seed is beginning to ripen. The seed heads are placed upside down in a paper bag and left in a warm dry place for a week. The seeds then separate from the stems easily for storage in an airtight container.
Aroma profile Edit
- Apiole/芹菜腦[klärifaikeiçion rīkwairen]
- Carvone/藏茴香酮 , 
- Myristicin/肉豆蔻醚, 
- Umbelliferone/繖形花内酯[klärifaikeiçion rīkwairen]
- Antibacterial potent of Staphylococcus aureus [klärifaikeiçion rīkwairen]
- Antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae , 
- Plants for a Future: Anethum graveolens
- 'A Modern Herbal' (Grieves, 1931)
- Jepson Manual Treatment
- USDA Plants Profile
- GRIN Species Profile
Notes & ReferencesEdit
- ↑ Zohary and Hopf, page 206.
- ↑ Zohary, Daniel; Hopf, Maria (2000n). Domestication of plants in the Old World, 3rd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 206. ISBN 0198503571.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Matthew 23:23
- ↑ A Busy Cook's Guide to Spices by Linda Murdock
- ↑ Whole Foods Profile
- ↑ Davidson, A. (2003). Seafood of South-East Asia, 2nd edition. Ten Speed Press.
- ↑ Ling, K. F. (2002). The Food of Asia. Periplus Editions.
- ↑ Bailer, Josef et al. (2001). "Essential oil content and composition in commercially available dill cultivars in comparison to caraway". Industrial Crops and Products 14 (3): 229 - 239. Elsevier. doi: .
- ↑ Santos, Pedro A.G. et al. (2002). "Hairy root cultures of Anethum graveolens (dill): establishment, growth, time-course study of their essential oil and its comparison with parent plant oils". Biotechnology Letters 24 (12): 1031 - 1036. Springer. doi: .
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Singh, Gurdip et al. (2005). "Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobial Investigations, and Antioxidative Potentials of Anethum graveolens L. Essential Oil and Acetone Extract: Part 52". Journal of Food Science 70 (4): M208 - M215. John Wiley & Sons.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 Dhalwal, Kamlesh et al. (2008). "Efficient and Sensitive Method for Quantitative Determination and Validation of Umbelliferone, Carvone and Myristicin in Anethum graveolens and Carum carvi Seed". Chromatographia 67 (1 - 2): 163 - 167. Springer. doi: .
- ↑ Blank, I.; W. Grosch (1991). "Evaluation of Potent Odorants in Dill Seed and Dill Herb (Anethum graveolens L.) by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis". Journal of Food Science 56 (1): 63 - 67. John Wiley & Sons. doi: .
- ↑ Delaquis, Pascal J. et al. (2002). "Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils". International Journal of Food Microbiology 74 (1 - 2): 101 - 109. Elsevier. doi: .
- ↑ Jirovetz, Leopold et al. (2003). "Composition, Quality Control, and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Long-Time Stored Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) Seeds from Bulgaria". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (13): 3854 – 3857. American Chemical Society. doi: .
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