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蒔蘿
Dill dried umbel.jpg
Scientific classification
Domain: 真核域 Eukarya
Kingdom: 植物界 Plantae
Phylum: 被子植物門 Magnoliophyta
Class: 雙子葉植物綱 Magnoliopsida
Order: Ùmbrellaform-muk(Apiales)
Family: Ùmbrellaform-fo(Apiaceae)
Genus: 蒔蘿屬(Anethum)
Species: 蒔蘿(A. graveolens)
Binomial name
Anethum graveolens
L.
Dill (Anethum graveolens) is a short-lived perennial herb. It is the sole species of the genus Anethum, though classified by some botanists in a related genus as Peucedanum graveolens (L.) C.B.Clarke.

蒔蘿(英文:dill,學名:Anethum graveolens)又名洋茴香傘形科蒔蘿屬中唯一的一種植物,為一年生草本植物,原生於西亞,後西傳至地中海沿岸及歐洲各地,現今地中海和東歐為主要的生產地,外形類似茴香,高度約為一至四英呎高,黃色小花呈傘狀分布,葉為針狀分針。

特徵Edit

屬芹菜科的一年生草本植物,地中海、南俄羅斯、伊朗、印度北部一帶是其原產地。植株外型與茴香相似,但茴香氣味較甜,而蒔蘿則有較明顯的辛香味。

GrowthEdit

It grows to Script error, with slender stems and alternate, finely divided, softly delicate leaves Script error long. The ultimate leaf divisions are Script error broad, slightly broader than the similar leaves of fennel, which are threadlike, less than Script error broad, but harder in texture. The flowers are white to yellow, in small umbels Script error diameter. The seeds are Script error long and Script error thick, and straight to slightly curved with a longitudinally ridged surface.

Origins and historyEdit

Dill dried umbel

Dried dill umbel

Dill originated in Eastern Europe[Sōrs rīkwest]. Zohary and Hopf remark that "wild and weedy types of dill are widespread in the Mediterranean basin and in West Asia."[1]

Although several twigs of dill were found in the tomb of Amenhotep II, they report that the earliest archeological evidence for its cultivation comes from late Neolithic lake shore settlements in Switzerland.[2] Traces have been found in Roman ruins in Great Britain.

In Semitic languages it is known by the name of Shubit. The Talmud requires that tithes shall be paid on the seeds, leaves, and stem of dill. The Bible states that the Pharisees were in the habit of paying dill as tithe[3]. Jesus rebuked them for tithing dill but omitting justice, mercy and faithfulness[3]Matthew 23:23[Sōrs rīkwest]

FolkloreEdit

To the Greeks the presence of dill was an indication of prosperity. In the 8th century, Charlemagne used it at banquets to relieve hiccups and in the Middle Ages it was used in a love potion and was believed to keep witches away.[4]

Nomenclature and taxonomy Edit

The name dill comes from Old English dile, thought to have originated from a Norse or Anglo-Saxon word dylle meaning to soothe or lull[Sōrs rīkwest], the plant having the carminative property of relieving gas. In Sanskrit, this herb is termed as Shatapushpa. The seeds of this herb is also termed as Shatakuppi sompa, Shatapushpi, Sabasige, Badda sompu, Sabasiga, Surva, Soyi, Sowa, Soya in Tamil, Hindi, Telugu, Kannanda, Gujarathi, Hindi, Punjabi etc. Template:Expand section

Uses / Yuseij / 用途 Edit

Fresh and dried dill leaves (sometimes called "dill weed" to distinguish it from dill seed) are used as herbs.

Like caraway, its fernlike leaves are aromatic, and are used to flavor many foods, such as gravlax (cured salmon), borscht and other soups, and pickles (where sometimes the dill flower is used). Dill is said to be best when used fresh, as it loses its flavor rapidly if dried; however, freeze-dried dill leaves preserve their flavor relatively well for a few months.

Dill seed is used as a spice, with a flavor somewhat similar to caraway, but also resembling that of fresh or dried dill weed. Dill seeds were traditionally used to soothe the stomach after meals.[5] And, dill oil can be extracted from the leaves, stems and seeds of the plant.

In Lao cuisine and parts of northern Thailand and Vietnam dill is known in English as Laotian coriander[6] and Lao cilantro (Template:Lang-lo, Template:Lang-th, Template:Lang-vi). In the Lao language it is called Phak See and in Thai it is known as Phak Chee Lao.[7] In Lao cuisine, the herb is typically used in mok pa (steamed fish in banana leaf) and several coconut milk-based curries that contain fish or prawns. Lao coriander is also an essential ingredient in Vietnamese dishes like cha ca and canh cá thì là.

蒔蘿的用於醫療和食用调味。

蒔蘿子在醫療上用於腸胃不適、口臭糖尿病等。

食用多用於魚類烹調,用以去除腥味,此外也用於在湯類、泡菜、麵包以及製食物等。 其果實和種子,在尚未成熟時採收使用,可以提炼成精油食用,也可以经过晾晒干燥处理成为香辛料; 其葉子(又稱作蒔蘿草)亦作為香草料,可以新鲜食用,也可以干燥加工,气味幽香,常用于鱼类烹饪。


CultivationEdit

Successful cultivation requires warm to hot summers with high sunshine levels; even partial shade will reduce the yield substantially. It also prefers rich, well drained soil. The seeds are viable for 3–10 years. Plants intended for seed for further planting should not be grown near fennel, as the two species can hybridise[Sōrs rīkwest].

The seed is harvested by cutting the flower heads off the stalks when the seed is beginning to ripen. The seed heads are placed upside down in a paper bag and left in a warm dry place for a week. The seeds then separate from the stems easily for storage in an airtight container.

Aroma profile Edit

Toxicology Edit

Template:Expand section

External links / Ikstörnol liŋks / 外部連結 Edit

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Notes & ReferencesEdit

  1. Zohary and Hopf, page 206.
  2. Zohary, Daniel; Hopf, Maria (2000n). Domestication of plants in the Old World, 3rd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 206. ISBN 0198503571. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Matthew 23:23
  4. A Busy Cook's Guide to Spices by Linda Murdock
  5. Whole Foods Profile
  6. Davidson, A. (2003). Seafood of South-East Asia, 2nd edition. Ten Speed Press.
  7. Ling, K. F. (2002). The Food of Asia. Periplus Editions.
  8. Bailer, Josef et al. (2001). "Essential oil content and composition in commercially available dill cultivars in comparison to caraway". Industrial Crops and Products 14 (3): 229 - 239. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/S0926-6690(01)00088-7. 
  9. Santos, Pedro A.G. et al. (2002). "Hairy root cultures of Anethum graveolens (dill): establishment, growth, time-course study of their essential oil and its comparison with parent plant oils". Biotechnology Letters 24 (12): 1031 - 1036. Springer. doi:10.1023/A:1015653701265. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Singh, Gurdip et al. (2005). "Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobial Investigations, and Antioxidative Potentials of Anethum graveolens L. Essential Oil and Acetone Extract: Part 52". Journal of Food Science 70 (4): M208 - M215. John Wiley & Sons. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Dhalwal, Kamlesh et al. (2008). "Efficient and Sensitive Method for Quantitative Determination and Validation of Umbelliferone, Carvone and Myristicin in Anethum graveolens and Carum carvi Seed". Chromatographia 67 (1 - 2): 163 - 167. Springer. doi:10.1365/s10337-007-0473-6. 
  12. Blank, I.; W. Grosch (1991). "Evaluation of Potent Odorants in Dill Seed and Dill Herb (Anethum graveolens L.) by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis". Journal of Food Science 56 (1): 63 - 67. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb07976.x. 
  13. Delaquis, Pascal J. et al. (2002). "Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils". International Journal of Food Microbiology 74 (1 - 2): 101 - 109. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00734-6. 
  14. Jirovetz, Leopold et al. (2003). "Composition, Quality Control, and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Long-Time Stored Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) Seeds from Bulgaria". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (13): 3854 – 3857. American Chemical Society. doi:10.1021/jf030004y. 

Template:Herbs & spices

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